TUBERCULOSIS(TB)

LABORATORY SERVICES.
December 13, 2019
PRECONCEPTION CARE
March 17, 2020

TUBERCULOSIS(TB)

TB is a highly infectious disease that usually affects the lungs.it is caused by bacteria known as mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted from person to person through the air.

The bacteria can spread to other parts of the body causing what is known as extra pulmonary T.B.

There are two types of T.B

  1. Latent TB. This type of TB the bacteria remain in the body in an inactive state. They cause no clinical signs or symptoms and are not infectious however they can become active as a result of immune suppression.
  2. Active TB in this type of TB the bacteria causes signs and symptoms and can be transmitted from one person to the other through coughing, sneezing or spitting.

Tb affects all age groups including children and adolescents. According to WHO a total of 2.5 million people died of TB in 2018, worldwide, it is one of the top 10 cause of deaths.

Estimated 58 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment between 200-2018.

Signs and symptoms

-Cough

-Weight loss

-fever/Hotness of the body

-Night sweats

-Loss of appetite

-Fatigue/tiredness

-Chest pains

Diagnosis

History taking and physical examination to look out for the signs and symptoms

Laboratory investigations.

  1. FHG, sputum test for microscopy, Gene expert or culture
  2. Chest x-ray.

Treatment.

TB is a treatable and curable disease. Active TB disease is treated with a standard 6 –month course of antibiotic drugs.

The precise type and duration of antibiotic treatment depends on a person age, overall health and potential drug resistant to drugs and location of the infection.

Prevention.

TB prevention and control rely primarily on the vaccination of infant and early detection and appropriate treatment of active cases. Currently we have a tuberculosis self-screening tool that enables individuals to identify symptoms of tuberculosis for timely diagnosis and management.

 

1 Comment

  1. dominic says:

    helpful

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