December 13, 2019

This is the chronic condition which is associated with abnormal high levels of blood sugar/glucose.

Diabetes is due to one of two mechanisms.

  1. Inadequate production of insulin (which is made by the pancreas and lower blood glucose) or
  2. Inadequate sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin.

Elevated levels of blood sugar/glucose lead over time to serious damage to the

-Heart                                                 -Eyes

-Blood vessels                                   -Kidneys & nerves

Thus leading to the following: –


-Cardiovascular disease

-Diabetes retinopathy (eye disease)

-Nephropathy (kidney disease)

-Neuropathy (Nerve disease)

-Foot amputation

Symptoms of diabetes

-Unexplained weight loss



-Frequent urination

-Blurred vision

-Excessive thirst


Nutrition is often said to be the corner stone of diabetes.

Nutritional management of diabetes can affect long term health and quality of life.

The goal for nutritional management is.

  1. Optimal metabolic control through a balance between food intake
  2. Physical activity.
  3. Medication to avoid complications.

Low blood sugar (hypo glycaemia)


1.Early symptoms





-Poor concentration

2.Later symptoms.

-Sweating –Shaking




3.Sever Symptoms

Loss of conscious/coma


Taking more medication than you need/require

Not eating enough food/delayed meals

Exercise without eating

Too much exercise or unusual physical activity

Drinking alcohol

Stress& illness


Eat at regular intervals i.e. Breakfast, lunch and supper

What to Avoid-

1.Food to avoid completely





-Sodas except diet coke/coke zero

-A lot of salt

-Deep fried foods e.g. chips etc.

2. Food to eat freely

-Consume a lot of vegetables e.g. Sukuma, cabbage, spinach,terere, managu e.t.c

3.Food to eat in portion

-Githeri, ugali,chapati,rice & bread

NB consume the above food in their non refined forms as much as possible

NOTE: 1) Water at least 8 glasses daily.

             2) Physical exercise.

             3) Avoid skipping meals.

              4) Foot care.

Foot care

Always keep your feet clean

Dry feet well especially in between your toes with a soft towel

Check your feet regularly or get someone to check for you or use a mirror

AVOID –Long boots

             -Tight socks

             -High shoes

             -Walking bare footed

             – Extreme heat directly to the legs

Prepared by: Miriam Kalekye

Designation: Registered nutritionist

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